Here is a shot that I took recently in Berlin. I wanted to frame the ruins of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Gedächtniskirche (Memorial Church) with the broken links of the chain, and also include the skyscraper at the right.
The “falling over buildings ” problem is solved, but another – bigger! – problem has taken its place. Not only have I lost the top of the skyscraper and even the top of the broken chain, I have gained a vast expanse of boring and unwanted foreground.
One hundred years ago, this would have not presented a problem; the photographer merely slid upwards the lens board, which moved the lens up, cutting out the unwanted foreground and including the top of the building. But how can one do that with an SLR camera?
When the new company Exakta GmbH announced the Exakta 66 in 1984, one of the top selling points was that it would be a vehicle for the outstanding lenses produced by Joseph Schneider of Bad Kreuznach, the quality of whose lenses was already well established. At the time they were providing zoom lenses for the Hasselblad, and a range of lenses for Rollei and other cameras.
Among the lenses to be offered in the Exakta 66 mount was the Schneider PCS Super-Angulon f/4.5 55mm shift lens.
Users of 5 × 4 inch and larger cameras are used to the freedom of raising the front standard to include the tops of tall buildings without having to tilt the camera up, which would produce the classic “key-stoning” problem, where the building appears to be falling over backwards, with all the vertical lines converging towards the top of the image. (To see another example of key-stoning, click here and scroll to near the bottom of the 250mm section.) With a standard 35mm or Medium Format SLR this is not possible, although a very small number of manufacturers offer one or more shift lenses, which duplicate the effect of a rising (or falling) front. Such shift lenses tend to have a wider than normal angle, as the need for them usually arises in situations where it is not possible to step back far enough to include the whole of the subject without tilting the camera.
The Super-Angulon is well known as an outstanding lens that has
been available for many years in mounts for Rollei SLRs, and also
for the Bronica ETRS. The illustrations in the Exakta 66
literature seem to indicate that it was indeed produced in the
Exakta 66 mount, although the list price of DM6,890 + sales tax in
1988 must have led to very few of them being sold!
At Photokina in Köln (Colgne, Germany) in 2002 I handled one of
these lenses in the Rollei 6000-System mount. It is of
course beautifully engineered, although it is extremely heavy
(1.65 kilograms in Exakta 66 mount, according to Exakta’s
literature). The recommended retail price, this time
including German sales tax, was €8,400 (that’s eight thousand four
hundred Euros – enough to pay for a good nearly new small family
|An unmasked image projected by a lens will be round,
with a gradual fall-off in brightness and definition
towards the edges. Lenses and cameras are designed
so that the part of the projected image that is
included within the exposed area (i.e., the image recorded
on film) meets certain criteria as regards sharpness and
does not have noticeable fall-off in light intensity
Of course, in order to cover the film area completely with acceptable sharpness and without vignetting – even when shifted to the maximum extent – any shift lens has to have a much larger image circle than a non-shift lens, and this must increase the diameter of the lens elements and the mount that holds them and with it the weight and the manufacturing cost.
Given these factors, it is nothing less than amazing that users of Pentacon Six mount cameras have available to them – new! – a range of shift lenses, and at extremely modest prices!
Arsenal in Kiev have produced their own “Arsat” 55mm shift lens,
which is reputedly one of the sharpest lenses available in the
Pentacon Six mount. Results in fact prove to be extremely
satisfactory. See examples at the bottom of this
Hartblei in Kiev realised that the image circle projected by the
Arsenal 45mm Mir 26 and the 65mm Mir 38 wide-angle lenses is large
enough to enable the optical components to be put in a mount with
a shift facility. They have designed some excellent mounts
for these lenses, and also apply their own outstanding
multi-coating to the optical elements. Here are the details
of these three shift lenses:
|Filter thread, mm||
Arsenal are now also producing 45mm & 65mm shift lenses, bearing their ARSAT brand name.
The three Arsat shift lenses (L to R: 45mm, 55mm, 65mm)
as illustrated on the Arax website (not to scale)
General requirements of shift lenses
A shift lens does not need to be as wide as its non-shift
Why is this?
Most shift lenses are used to increase coverage in a given
direction while maintaning the back of the camera absolutely
vertical. The most common use is for architectural shots
(pictures of buildings), as on this page: to avoid having to tilt
the camera up in order to include in the picture
the top of the building. Tilting the camera up results in
the famous "falling building syndrome", in which the
building seems to be falling over backwards.
A wider lens may enable you to include the top of the building in
the picture, without tilting the camera up. However, it will
also include at the bottom of the picture a lot of ground
(pavement, grass, etc) that is probably not wanted and will have
to be cut out of the final picture.
By shifting the lens up, you will get that coverage
at the top of the scene, without the unwanted ground.
For this reason, in many circumstances, a 65mm shift lens may give as much coverage -- in the desired direction -- as a 55mm or 60mm non-shift lens,
a 55mm shift lens may give as much coverage in the desired direction as a 50mm non-shift lens
and a 45mm shift lens may give as much coverage in the desired direction as a 40mm non-shift lens.
The most commonly-needed shift direction is up
– normally for architecture. Of course, when using a camera
that has a square format, like the Pentacon Six, it is possible to
turn the camera on its side, or even up-side down, to get a shift
in the required direction. However, using the Pentacon Six
on its side is less comfortable than the right way up, and using
it upside down is decidedly difficult – and how would you attach
it to a tripod?!
All five lenses (the 45mm lenses from Hartblei and from Arsat, the 65mm lenses from Hartblei and Arsat, and the 55mm lens from Arsat only) are in mounts that rotate – so it is possible to shift down as well as up, sideways, or even in other diagonal directions if required.
For some landscape shots it may be desirable to shift the lens
sideways. In fact, for static subjects it is possible to
take two pictures, one with the lens shifted to the left and the
other with the lens shifted to the right, and then to combine the
results in software, in order to obtain a medium format
panoramic shot in which the dimensions of film used
for the final image are 54mm high (the actual height of images in
“6×6” cameras) × 78mm wide!! You can
see an example of this on the next page, here.
Range of movement of
these shift lenses
The Hartblei 45mm and Arsat 55mm lenses offer a maximum shift
range of 12mm. However, the Hartblei 45mm lens has the 11
& 12mm shift positions marked in red, which means that with
this degree of shift there is likely to be some vignetting on the
opposite edge to the shift, and this extreme shift should only be
used if the image is to be cropped, or the lens is mounted on a
camera with a 6×4.5cm nominal film gate or film back. The
Hartblei 65mm lens has a maximum shift range of 10mm, with the
10mm position marked in red for the same reason.
Other shift lenses
There is a report on the 45mm Arsat shift lens here. Reports on 45mm
shift lenses from Hartblei begin here
and shift shift/tilt lenses from Wiese are described here. You can visit the
Wiese-Fototechnik website here.
So what is the quality of the images produced by these lenses?
The Hartblei 45mm and 65mm shift lenses
For the non-shifted performance of the 45mm and 65mm lenses, I would refer you to the Wide-Angle lens tests section. Of course, even apart from the shift capabilities, there are some major differences.
The following pictures are not really a fair test: taken late afternoon on a winter’s day, shot into the sun, which is actually within the picture area (!), just behind one of the palm trees, the hot spot on the right is not a lens fault but the lighting at the time. Thus, the fall-off in lighting from this spot is not vignetting. This side of the building was in the shadow, resulting in a lack of contrast and in particular a lack of shadow detail. However, these two pictures do show the relative field of view of the 45mm and 65mm Hartblei shift lenses, both shifted up by 9mm. With a steeply rising pavement, we couldn’t have got a shot of this house without tilting the camera up – if we hadn’t had a shift lens! In spite of the adverse circumstances, we did get two shots with virtually no vertical keystoning, and no vignetting!
The lamp post on the left in the 45mm picture reveals some barrel
distortion, though I may have had the camera slightly tilted up,
which makes it appear worse (no tripod and no spirit level used –
I wanted to get the picture taken before the owner came out and
asked me what I was up to!) By the way, the tree stump just
left of centre is twisted – that’s not a distortion
introduced by the lens!
To see the results of a detailed test with the 45mm Harblei
shift-only lens, click here.
Finally, here is that problem Berlin view again, this time using
the 45mm Hartblei Super-Rotator with the full 12mm shift.
I'm repeating the other two shots beside it, to enable you to make
easy comparisons. All shots taken from exactly the same
position, with a Pentacon Six TL at 1/250 f/9.5 with Fuji NPH 400.
Hartblei 45mm Super-Rotator
Zero shift. Camera body tilted up
Hartblei 45mm Super-Rotator
12mm shift up Camera body held upright (parallel to subject)
Hartblei 45mm Super-Rotator
Zero shift. Camera body held upright (parallel to subject)
In my opinion, the results really are excellent.
The Arsat 55mm
||To give an idea of scale, here is the 55mm Arsat shift
lens next to the 50mm Flektogon. A shift lens will
normally be more bulky than a non-shift lens, because
||Note that it is not practical to build an automatic
aperture link into shift lenses, so all of these lenses
have a manual pre-set aperture. However, for the
type of photography for which they are designed, which is
careful and methodical and usually using a tripod, this is
not a problem.
The Arsat 55mm shift lens even has an easy-to-use stop down ring (labelled “A” in the image on the left) so that the pre-set aperture can be easily found without taking one’s eye from the viewfinder and it has a cable release socket on the lens (labelled “B”), to provide automatic stopping down of the lens via a double cable release.
||With a double cable release, pressing one plunger first
stops down the lens and then fires the shutter.
Adjust the timing of the two cables by rotating and locking the rings marked “A” and “B” on the image to the left.
I have marked each cable with a paper collar (visible at the far end of each cable) marked “camera” and “lens”, respectively, so that I don’t inadvertently connect the cables the wrong way round.
These shift lenses are available new from Michael Fourman at www.kievcamera.net and
from Gevorg Vartanyan at www.araxfoto.com
Here are two comparison shots taken with seconds of each other from the same spot with the 55mm Arsat shift lens, both with the Pentacon Six at 1/250 f/14 on Fuji NPH 400 negative film
Zero shift, but camera tilted up
Lens fully shifted up (12mm) Camera (virtually) horizontal
To see more advantages of shift lenses, continue to the
Next section (Other advantages of shift lenses)
To go back to the section on Other Accessories, click here.
To go back to the beginning of the Lens Data section, click below
and then choose the range of lenses that you want to read about.
Back to beginning of the Lens Data section
To go back to the beginning of the lens tests, click below and
then choose the focal length that you want to read about.
Back to beginning of lens tests
© TRA December 2005 Latest revision: August 2017